A business organization, large or small, cannot be successful unless the job is done right by everyone. However, in a place where so many bodies are at work, chaos is sure to reign. To prevent chaos to take over it is important to plan the course of action and then organizing the actions each body has to take. This way everyone knows what to do and what to expect from a leader or a manager.
Planning and organizing are two most integral parts of management that help shape up an organization. Through these two processes is a manger able to get the right word through out to everyone that what is expected of them to get the job done.
For the managers to take control, plan and organize, the company needs to be structured in an organizational chart. It is the visual representation of the vertical structure. Meaning, it is a framework for hierarchy or the chain of command that every department on any level. Through this chart, it is easier to assign specific jobs or duties to each department for completion of a task. Each department plays a vital role in an organization and each needs to follow a plan.
Planning amongst the five management functions is the most fundamental of all. All other functions branch out from planning. Before the manager can perform any of the functions, it is important for him to plan the proper course of action. A plan is like a blueprint for goal achievement that specifies the necessary resource allotment, timetables, tasks and other actions.
Planning works two ways; it determines the goals of the organization and predicts the means for achieving them. Planning helps the managers adjust to the environment and bring out the best in it. It helps long survival of a business through actively foreseeing and managing the risks that have the tendencies of future occurrences.
There are four types of planning that a manager can use to char t out a proper course of action. Each in its own provides an idea of how the organizations can perform better internally as well as externally.
This kind of planning is based on the operations of each department. The manager assigns specific operations to each department precisely because of their operations.
This sort of planning is specific to the levels of each department. This type of planning is used when short-term goals are targeted and each lower level unit is told what they must do, how they must do it and who will be in charge of the tasks.
This type of planning is based on the goals of the entire organizational rather than specific to each department. It begins with the organization’s goal or mission. The organization is seen from beginner to a successful business in the broad spectrum.
The last but defiantly not the least, this planning is the back up plan of an organization in case of backfire from any of the above plans. This sort of planning determines the alternative course of action that can be taken in order to achieve the goals when the original plans fail.
All the types of plans are used together. These plans when interconnected try to achieve the one purpose that is the success of the organization through achieved of goals.
It is a process in which physical, financial and human resources are brought together. It helps develop productive relationships amongst them and allow achievement of organizational goals. The following are some functions of organizing:
• Identify and group the work to be performed
• Define and determine authority and responsibility for each job position
• Establish relationship amongst various job positions
• Determine detailed rules and regulations of working for employees as well as teams in the organization
Organizing is important as it aids administration and operation of the organization. It helps growth and facilitates diversification through clear division of work. Organizing brings order amongst co-workers and place proper duties to the right “man of action”.
The following functions are some of the concepts of organizing:
It is the division of labor that is the degree to which organizational tasks are divided into separate jobs. Employees within each department only perform tasks related to their specialized fields.
Chain of command
It is the line of authority that links all persons in an organization and identifies who reports to whom.
It is the legitimate right of a manager to make decisions, issue orders and assign resources to achieve goals. The level of a manager’s authority is defined in the job description.
It is the downward transfer of authority from a manager to a subordinate. It allows flexibility in meeting the deadlines and achieving desired results.
Span of control
It is the number of subordinates and workers answerable to one manager. It can be wide or narrow as a proper number of subordinates have never been determined.
Planning and organizing is important because they provide guidance to not only workers or teams but also to managers. This way manager knows what has been assigned and employees know what is expected of them. With these two functions, optimal coordination can be achieved in an organization and lead an enterprise to success.